Modern parents pay much attention to the preschool education of their children. At the same time, adults need to remember that the main task of preschool preparation is to create optimal conditions for each child to maximize the development of his individual data, taking into account age. Mathematical training plays one of the key roles in this process. Let’s take a closer look at what content of mathematical training should be provided for preschoolers.
Why do you need to learn math
“Mathematics is then taught that she’s got a mind to clean up.” M.V. Lomonosov.
Mathematics is a unique subject. It is indispensable for development in children:
It participates in the formation of perseverance, patience, creative abilities of the personality. She teaches analysis and synthesis, planning of her actions, the most accurate presentation of thoughts, the ability to justify the existing point of view. Helps introduce children of preschool age to the world around them.
Why do we need mathematics – children’s reflections…
The child needs knowledge of mathematical content for successful social adaptation, as well as for orientation in the increasingly developing information and technological processes in society.
From what age and how to teach
Five-, six-year-olds are very active in learning and understanding the reality around them. Pre-school children are very fond of asking questions, and the question “why?” becomes particularly popular. They try to understand the structure of any thing, begin to establish the cause and effect of any events that occur around them. These questions and skills are very useful not only for general development, but also for learning. Therefore, from the age of 5-6 years it is already possible to actively teach them mathematics. It happens that a child of younger age (3-4 years) is also interested in the subject. In this case, you do not have to wait until they reach 5-6 years to start classes.
Acquaintance with numbers can be started at the age of 3.
Follow the interests of your preschooler, listen to him, try to preserve his natural natural interest in the subject. Your efforts will be rewarded. At the same time, in no case should not “impose” children the need to learn the subject, because the opposite effect can be achieved – reluctance to learn, lack of interest.
The main activity of preschool children is a game, so in learning and should take advantage of the diversity of its possibilities. It should not be attempted to teach the child the full range of activities as in a kindergarten or centre. Your priority should be very different forms: walks, excursions, games with natural materials (water, sand), designers, joint household chores, reading and acquaintance with elements of folklore (counters, patterned words), board games, situational games (shop, train) – in general, everything that will prompt your imagination, imagination, life experience.
Content lines of mathematical training, common core math example
Teachers and methodologists have traditionally identified four substantial lines as the basis for the development of preschoolers in mathematics:
Numbers and figures
The arithmetic line includes, first of all, the study of numbers and figures. The child must understand that learning to count is necessary. Help him/her do this (first to 10, then to 20). You can teach children to count using any objects and their images: dice, plates, steps, toys, products, pictures, etc. At the same time with the oral account of the child it is necessary to familiarize the child with the graphic representation of numbers. This can be helped by the method of associations, as well as poetic forms.
For example, the “two” is like a swan neck, the “four” is like a chair that has been turned upside down, the “eight” is like two rings and so on. If you wish, you can come up with your own original associations in “co-authorship” with the child.
Marshak’s poems about numbers will help you remember them faster.
Excellent poems about the numbers “Funny Bill” was composed back in 1968 by S.Y.Marshak. They can still be used today. For example, “Bending a double neck, Dragging a tail for it.” Or, “Number six – door lock: Hook at the top, circle at the bottom.”
For a better understanding of the graphical outline of numbers can be prepared for preschool children coloring and writing with tasks to encircle the numbers, and then teach them to write themselves. But at the same time, remember that the written writing of numbers in the first grade may be different from your idea (depending on the selected program of study), so you should teach children “printed” images of numbers, rather than their captionary version.
Playing games with numbers to memorize
Advice to parents: It is important to teach your child the direct and indirect scoring of up to 20, the concepts of “previous”, “next” and tens of up to 100.
In the next stage, we teach preschoolers to compare numbers. First we do it with the same type of subjects, then we teach signs: ?, ?, =, +, -. After that we can propose comparison tasks with numbers (more, less, equal). This is a very important stage in a preschool child’s mathematical development. At first, we compare, and then only apply it to the record.
More or less we have to study both the number and size of subjects.
Adding and subtracting
The basics of mathematics are the actions on numbers: addition and subtraction. Initially, the learning of addition is done using subjects or images. The child should be able to count the objects used (buttons, dice, etc.) Perhaps the child will count on his or her fingers – this is not a problem, later he or she will learn to count “in mind”. A numeric ribbon or ordinary ruler is also suitable for addition skills. On the ruler, show how to move the numeric ray to the right to add, and left to subtract.
Teach your baby gradually: first we teach you to add one, then two (this is one and one more), etc.
After working on the addition, enter the same term “subtraction”, touch math required. When your child is good at adding and subtracting orally, you can ask him or her to solve examples and later the addition and subtraction tasks. You and your child can take turns inventing tasks one by one.
All kinds of coloring of mathematical content are very helpful in the process of development. Pay attention to the tasks: draw by numbers, paint a picture by solving common core math example for child.
Mathematical tutorial coloring
In a geometrical line of mathematics for preschool children the basic maintenance is based around studying of flat geometrical figures.
Lines and sections:
lines and curves;
intersecting and non-intersecting;
broken, closed, unclosed;
Geometry for small pieces – study of figures.
Familiarize children with figures not only with the image on paper, but also with household items: a plate, a book, a notebook, a stand for hot, etc. Besides it is possible to draw drawings with the child, using geometrical figures, and also to transform them into any objects (for example, it is possible to draw the face, a pancake, the sun, a matryoshka from a circle). It is also useful for their development.
Montessori geometry develops logic and spatial thinking.
Advice to parents: it is necessary not only to acquaint children with geometrical figures, but also to teach them to draw.
Also the geometrical content of mathematics training includes development of ability to divide figures into equal parts.
When selecting the content of mathematical education of preschool children, the following concepts should be included in the line of values:
When studying all these categories, it is also necessary to follow from simple to complex, not forgetting comparisons. By school, children should be taught to compare subjects by attributes: wide – narrow, thick – thin, high – low, large – small, deep – small, distant – close, heavy – light, long – short. The beginning of mathematical learning in the first grade will be built on orientation in all these concepts. It is possible to measure the length, width, height of subjects not only with a ruler, but also with other handy means.
In addition, it is crucial to teach children how to navigate on a piece of paper. They should know the categories: top, bottom, right and left side. To this end, mathematical dictations are conducted on a sheet of paper in a cage. For example, put a dot, draw two cells to the right, then three down, two right, four up, etc. The result is a conceived picture. The baby listens to the instructions and follows them. Another time he can already dictate to you, you will follow.
Let’s learn the time in the game
In the category “time” it is necessary to teach a preschooler to call the seasons, months, parts of the day. But teach to determine the time by the hands of the clock can, but not necessarily.
Advice to parents: teach preschoolers to compare subjects and pictures on different grounds, as well as find them in common and different.
Developing the mathematical abilities of preschoolers, use a variety of logic games. They train not only the basics of logical, but also creative thinking, learn to find non-standard solutions. And among other things, help to stimulate interest in learning. They also develop concentration, because the task may contain a catch. When solving logical problems with your child, do not be in a hurry, let him understand the condition and offer his solution. This may seem wrong to you, but before you say it, try to understand the child’s logic and then draw conclusions.
The development of the logic of chess
Do not forget about the usual puzzles, charades, puzzles, tangrams, as well as board games: chess, lotto, dominoes.
Of course, there are now a lot of training programs on the computer, but they must be treated with caution. Take into account the age of children and time of classes, the content of games.
The question of mathematical development of children should be approached comprehensively, systematically and consistently. Try to diversify your activities with children. Do not forget about the alternation of different types of activities. And most importantly, refrain from criticism, more often praise your child, supporting him in his desire to open up new knowledge.